The Council of Europe is an organisation that is not part of the European Union, but it is expected to accede to the European Convention and possibly to the Council itself. The EU has its own document on human rights; the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.  Established in 2005, the UN Human Rights Council has a mandate to investigate alleged human rights violations.  Of the 193 UN member states, 47 sit on the Council and are elected by a simple majority by the UN General Assembly by secret ballot. Members have a maximum of six years in office and may be suspended for gross violation of human rights. The Council shall have its seat in Geneva and shall meet three times a year; with additional meetings to respond to urgent situations.  It has been the catalyst for improving the protection of human rights for groups such as persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and women. The UDHR by definition enshrines rights that apply equally to all human beings, regardless of their geographical location, state, race or culture. and also by Singaporean opposition leader Chee Soon Juan, who says it is racist to claim that Asians do not want human rights.   In Europe, different human rights standards and mechanisms are respected by the Council of Europe, the continent`s guardian of human rights. Its role, notably through the European Convention and the European Court of Human Rights, is set out below. In addition to the Council of Europe, the European Union and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) also play an important role.
The Inter-American Court of Human Rights was established in 1979 to ensure respect for and interpretation of the provisions of the American Convention on Human Rights. Its two main functions are therefore judgment and advice. In the context of the first, it hears and decides on specific cases of human rights violations referred to it. Within the framework of the latter, it issues opinions on questions of interpretation communicated to it by other organs or member States of the OAS.  In more than 110 countries, national human rights institutions (NGOs) have been established to protect, promote or monitor jurisdictional human rights in a given country.  Although not all NGOs comply with the Paris Principles, the number and impact of these institutions is increasing.  The Paris Principles were adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights, on 7 and 9 Adoption by 1992/54 United Nations Commission on Human Rights resolution 1992 and 1993 General Assembly resolution 48/134. The Paris Principles list a number of responsibilities for national institutions.  Since then, many other contracts (legislation) have been proposed at the international level. They are generally known as human rights instruments.
Some of the most important are the following: relativistic arguments tend to overlook the fact that modern human rights are new to all cultures and go back no further than the UDHR in 1948. Nor do they take into account the fact that the UDHR was designed by people from many different cultures and traditions, including an American Catholic, a Chinese Confucian philosopher, a French Zionist, and a representative of the Arab League, among others, and relied on the advice of thinkers like Mahatma Gandhi.  The human rights enshrined in the UDHR, the Geneva Conventions and the various UN implementing treaties are legally enforceable. In practice, many rights are very difficult to assert due to the lack of consensus on the application of certain rights, the absence of national legislation or bodies empowered to take legal action to enforce them. . . .